There are two major river basins in the Municipal District of Bighorn, the Bow River basin and the Red Deer River basin. Each river basin contains many sub-basins. Watershed Planning and Advisory Councils (WPACs) are the organizations that are tasked with monitoring the watersheds in Alberta and developing activities to address watershed issues. The Municipal District of Bighorn supports and participates in many of the watershed advisory groups and their initiatives.
The Municipal District of Bighorn Environmental Fieldman administers the Municipal District's watershed protection initiatives which include riparian area preservation and environmentally safe agricultural practices alongside water courses.